WORKS
Jackie O opera in 2 acts (1997)
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  • Jackie's Song
  • 1968
  • Jackie's Coming!
  • Egyptian Time
  • Goldfinger
  • Painter's Credo
  • Jackie's Credo
  • Addio del Passato
  • I Am Curious (Yellow)
  • Finale: Don't Look Back
  • 1968 (reprise)
  • I Resemble a God
  • Stiff Drink
  • All His Bright Light
  • I Will See You at the Lido
  • The Flame Duet
  • Smash His Camera!
  • Jack's Song
  • The New Frontier Is Here

Instrumentation
Soloists=2 sopranos, 2 mezzo sopranos, tenor, baritone, bass baritone; chorus; flute (piccolo), oboe (english horn), Eb clarinet, bass clarinet, soprano sax (alto and tenor); horn, trumpet, trombone, tuba (euphonium); 2 percussion; harp, acoustic guitar, piano (synthesizer); strings (1/1/1/1/1 or small complements)

Publisher
Boosey and Hawkes, Hendon Music (BMI)

Duration
90 minutes

World Premiere
March 14, 1997 / Houston, Texas / Houston Grand Opera / Christopher Larkin

Program Note
Jackie O (1997) opera in 2 acts

Jackie O (1997) is a celebration of musical life in the late sixties, a pop opera that explores the interplay of various musical idioms associated with "high" and "popular" culture in America. I draw on my background as a musician who came of age during the sixties, playing in rock and jazz ensembles, performing in avant-garde improvisation groups, and paying my dues as a cocktail pianist in nightclubs, while also being trained as a composer of concert music in the symphonic tradition.

The music I composed for Jackie O is filled with drama and suspense, to heighten the effect of a grand spectacle. I also create more intimate moments for the performance of solo arias. The overture is entitled "Jackie's Song" and performed by solo cello, introducing an elegiac leit motif that is repeated with increasingly elaborate orchestration in the course of the opera. The solo suggests an opposition between the private and the public Jackie, and is interrupted by a riveting snare drum rim-shot.

Interruption is an important compositional structure throughout Jackie O. I use sudden shifts in timbre, abrupt tempo changes, and the juxtaposition of consonance and dissonance to create a complex, multi-layered music that registers multiple meanings in Wayne Koestenbaum's libretto. At times the percussion also serves to disrupt the flow of song, with a ratchet for the ringing telephone, the sound of a siren, or the clicking camera and clicking heels of the tap-dancing paparazzo. All the musical numbers are rigorously structured, with a central motif or "hook" that I transform through polyrhythmic counterpoint and unusual orchestrations.

Most important is the human voice, and each character in the opera has a unique sound world. Jackie's arias, such as "Egyptian Time," "Jackie's Credo," and "All His Bright Light," are exotic, mournful and highly expressive. By contrast, the songs performed by Ari have a Vegas sound: "I am Curious Yellow" and "Stiff Drink" are reminiscent of Dean Martin or Sammy Davis Jr., members of the Sixties "Rat Pack."

Maria gets the operatic treatment in arias such as "Addio del passato" and the "Flame Duet." Since Maria was losing her voice in the sixties, she sings melodramatically in the low range, and even speaks on occasion. Liz Taylor sings bluesy, cat-on-a-hot-tin-roof riffs, while Princess Grace croons a la Doris Day. Andy Warhol's aria, like his art, is a series of inflected repetitions.

The chorus plays an important role throughout the opera. They comment on the action like a Greek chorus or the cast of a sixties television variety show such as Laugh In. In "1968" and "Jackie's Coming" the chorus performs whirlwind, snappy musical numbers punctuated by pulsating brassy rock rhythms. The voices are treated percussively in "Ballerina." The singers scat on the word "ballerina" while snapping their fingers to a Dancing Jackie, accompanied by a devilish violin. "Don't Look Back" features contrapuntal layering of voices, and in "1968 (reprise)" the chorus sings one last time in a minor key, as if drugged.

In Act Two, the chorus turns into a gaggle of playboys, singing an updated version of the traditional operatic drinking song: "Stiff Drink" is a catalogue of cocktails from A to Z. They perform to a grooving bass line, crotale, funky guitar, Hammond organ, and flutter-tongued brass. In "All His Bright Light," the playboys provide a contrast to Jackie's lyrical meditations, as they chant like robots: "The essence of tragedy is repetition."

The operatic plot evolves through a series of dramatic duets, such as the exchange of credos between Jackie and Andy Warhol in the first act. In this duet, the soprano and high baritone sing melodies that are mirror images of each other, introduced separately and then combined. Ari and Maria also sing a melodramatic recitative together, in rococo arpeggiations accompanied by a solo horn.

The "Flame Duet" in the second act features Jackie and Maria in a vocal tour de force for two sopranos, framed by dissonant cluster chords. And finally in "Jack's Song," Jackie sings a duet together with the ghostly voice of JFK. He asks for forgiveness, as fragments of "Jackie's Song" are repeated in an ostinato bass line.

The opera concludes with a folk guitar strumming vigorously, while Jackie and the chorus sing "The New Frontier is Here." But is it really here? A downward glissando breaks the spell, and the solo cello returns one last time, plaintively, prophetically.

Jackie is a complex figure in the opera, continually reflecting on her conversion into an American icon. So also, this opera reflects on the operatic medium itself, as a living form rediscovered and revived within an American context.

I composed the music for Jackie O from September 1995 to February 1997 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The work is scored for piccolo/flute, oboe/English horn, clarinet/bass clarinet, tenor/alto/soprano saxophone, bassoon, horn, trumpet, trombone/euphonium, tuba, harp, acoustic guitar, synthesizer/piano, percussion and strings.

I would like to thank members of the Opera Studios at the Houston Grand Opera and the University of Michigan School of Music, and also sopranos Lisa Bielawa, Elizabeth Eshleman, Dora Ornstein, and Joan Morris. I thank composers William Bolcom and John Harbison for their encouragement, and am grateful for support from the Guggenheim Foundation and the University of Michigan for the completion of this project.

Michael Daugherty

For more information on Michael Daugherty' music visit:
Boosey & Hawkes
Peermusic Classical
Faber Music
American Composers Forum
Michael Daugherty Music